This technique/repair requires transplant sections of bone and cartilage. First, the damaged section of bone and cartilage is removed from the joint. Then a new healthy dowel of bone with its cartilage covering is punched out of the same joint and replanted into the hole left from removing the old damaged bone and cartilage. The healthy bone and cartilage are taken from areas of low stress in the joint so as to prevent weakening the joint. Depending on the severity and overall size of the damage multiple plugs or dowels may be required to adequately repair the joint, which becomes difficult for Osteochondral Autografts. The clinical results may deteriorate over time.
For Osteochondral Allografts the plugs are taken from deceased donors. This has the advantage that more osteochondral tissue is available and larger damages can be repaired. There are, however, ethical considerations and worries on the histocompatibility.
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